Trier (German pronunciation: [ˈtʀiːɐ̯] ( ); French: Trèves, IPA: [tʁɛv]; Luxembourgish: Tréier; Italian: Treviri; Latin: Augusta Treverorum; the Latin adjective associated with the city is Treverensis), historically called Treves in English, is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle. It may be the oldest city in Germany, founded in or before 16 BCE (contested with Worms, Kempten, and Cologne).
The city is the oldest seat of a Christian bishop north of the Alps. In the Middle Ages, the Archbishop of Trier was an important prince of the church, as the Archbishopric of Trier controlled land from the French border to the Rhine. The Archbishop also had great significance as one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire.
With an approximate population of 105,000 Trier is ranked fourth among the state’s largest cities; after Mainz, Ludwigshafen, and Koblenz. The nearest large cities in Germany are Saarbrücken, some 80 kilometres (50 miles) southeast, and Koblenz, about 100 km (62 mi) northeast. The closest city to Trier is the capital of Luxembourg, some 50 km (31 mi) to the southwest.
Ramstein Castle is located on a massive sandstone outcropping near Kordel in the lower Kyll valley. The complex, begun around 900 and finished around 1325 by the Trier elector Balduin of Luxembourg, was later normally used by the Trier Cathedral deans as a country estate, until it was blown up in 1689.
Among other things, a huge four-story residential tower is preserved.